Can meaningful representation arise in an authoritarian setting? If so, how, when, and why? This book identifies the tradeoffs associated with representation in authoritarian environments and then tests the theory through a detailed inquiry into the dynamics of China's National People's Congress (NPC). I argue that the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) is engineering a system of "representation within bounds" in the NPC, fostering information revelation but silencing political activism. Original data on deputy backgrounds and behaviors is used to explore the nature of representation, policymaking, and incentives in this constrained system.